Apportionment politics Wikipedia

Among the Bill of Rights amendments to the United States Constitution proposed by Congress in 1789, was one addressing the number of seats in the House. It attempted to set a pattern for growth of the House along with the population, but has not been ratified. I take for granted here what I shall, in answering the fourth objection, hereinafter show, that the number of representatives will be augmented from time to time in the manner provided by the Constitution. On a contrary supposition, I should admit the objection to have very great weight indeed. The simplest and most universal principle is that elections should give each voter’s intentions equal weight.

  • Nexus is a legal term for whether a state has the power to tax a business.
  • The counts also include U.S. military personnel assigned to U.S. military vessels that have a homeport outside the 50 states.
  • Some political scientists think it’s time to rethink that 435 cap and look to expand the size of House to both bring down the representative ratio and make gerrymandering more difficult.
  • This means that the statutory deadline for delivering the counts to the President is December 31 of the census year.

Because it can be applied to both a company’s takings and its overheads, the purpose of this calculation can range from fulfilling a legal tax requirement to providing an effective way to manage bookkeeping. Generally speaking, it exists for instances where an overhead or income cannot be attributed to a single cost centre or area of a business, meaning the sum must be apportioned over any relevant areas. The decennial apportionment also determines the size of each state’s representation in the U.S. Constitution, the number of electors of any state equals the size of its total congressional delegation (House and Senate seats). States have differed on how to incorporate the sales factor in apportionment. In the early days of state tax apportionment laws, states did not include sales in the calculations, relying only on payroll and property.

Apportionment in Real Estate

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The vast majority of voters elect representatives of their philosophies. However, unlike district systems (or the hybrid models) no one elects a representative that represents them, or their specific region, and voters might reduce personal contact with their representatives. The costs are proportionately assigned to different departments when the overhead belongs to various departments. In simple terms, the expenses which can not be charged against a specific department are dispersed over multiple departments. When the cost items cannot be accurately allocated to a particular cost centre, then such items of cost are pro-rated amongst various cost objects, on an equitable basis.

The U.S. population growth between 1910 and 1920 would’ve increased the House numbers to 483, with most of the new seats awarded to more urban states in the Northeast, the home of growing industries and burgeoning immigrant populations. Congress failed to reach a consensus, preventing reapportionment after the 1920 census. Finally, in 1929, Congress passed the Permanent Apportionment Act, capping the size of the House at 435 members.

Other words from apportionment

Over time, sales has become a more important factor in states’ apportionment calculations. Apportionment is the assignment of a portion of a corporation’s income to a particular state for the purposes of determining the corporation’s income tax in that state. The state determines how much of your earnings are a result of business done in that state so it can charge you the right amount of income tax. Allocation and apportionment in U.S. tax differ in that allocation covers non-business income, while apportionment covers business income. An apportionment is the separation of revenues, expenses, or profits, which are then assigned to different accounts, departments, or subsidiaries. The concept is used in particular for the assignment of profits to different geographic regions of a business, which impacts the taxable profits reported to different governments.

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In 1941, Congress adopted the current formula, the Huntington-Hill Method, or “Method of Equal Proportions” for reapportioning House seats. The Webster Method is a modified version of the Hamilton/Vinton method. After the state populations are divided by the divisor, those with quotients that have fractions of 0.5 or above are awarded an extra seat. States with a quotient with a fraction below 0.5 have the fraction dropped.

When are the apportionment population counts given to the President? To the Congress? To the states?

Code, within 15 days of receiving the apportionment population counts from the President, the Clerk of the House must inform each state governor of the number of representatives to which each state is entitled. Code, within one week of the opening of the next session of the Congress in the new year, the President must report to the Clerk of the U.S. House of Representatives the apportionment population counts for each state and the number of representatives to which each state is entitled. Agencies and departments of the U.S. government provide the Census Bureau with counts of their overseas employees (and their dependents living with them overseas) by their home state based on their administrative records.

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Malapportionment is the creation of electoral districts with divergent ratios of voters to representatives. For example, if one single-member district has 10,000 voters and another has 100,000 voters, voters in the former district have ten times the influence, per person, over gross pay vs net pay the governing body. Malapportionment may be deliberate, for reasons such as biasing representation toward geographic areas or a minority over equality of individuals. For example, in a federation, each member unit may have the same representation regardless of its population.

In this case, Massachusetts could tax 35% of the firm’s net earnings. There is not an obviously “correct” approach to corporate apportionment. A company’s payroll and property in a state are more closely related to its operations there, the costs they impose, and the benefits they receive from good governance, but all states include sales into the state as a factor, and the majority (29 states) use it as the sole factor. The counts exclude any overseas federal employees who cannot be successfully allocated back to their home state based on their employers’ administrative records. The counts also exclude private U.S. citizens living overseas who are not employed by the U.S. government.

Economic nexus requires out-of-state sellers to collect and remit sales once they meet a certain sales threshold within the state, even if they don’t have a physical presence there. The U.S. Supreme Court’s Wayfair decision in 2018 overturned the physical presence standard for imposing sales and use taxes and allowed states to collect sales and use taxes on remote sellers based only on their economic activity in a state. Since then, almost every state has adopted some form of economic sales tax nexus.

It also provided for additional seats upon the admissions of Arizona and New Mexico as states, increasing the number to 435 in 1912. The ideal number of members has been a contentious issue since the country’s founding. In this section, you’ll find a collection of legislation dealing with apportionment, as well as an explanation of the methods of apportionment that have been used to allocate seats in the U.S. Even when electoral districts have similar populations, legislators may draw the boundaries to pursue private agendas; see Gerrymandering.

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