Control group Definition, Examples, & Facts

Next stage is both the objectives and ways shall be circulated among all the branches of organisation. If this is done properly, at the end of the period or financial, year it would be quite easy to assess what has been achieved and what remains unachieved. Generally, the cost-benefit policy is applied in economics but from the mid-sixties of the last century it is being applied in the functioning of organisations.

Manage implies direct handling and manipulating or maneuvering toward a desired result. Conduct, manage, control, direct mean to use one’s powers to lead, guide, or dominate. Eliminate grammar errors and improve your writing with our free AI-powered grammar checker. Have a human editor polish your writing to ensure your arguments are judged on merit, not grammar errors. Performance standards are the set of monetary terms like revenue, costs, or profits.

The sales manager decides that to reach the goal, they recommit marketing resources to increase advertising. The progress was not up to the standard, so an adjustment is necessary. The flipside of step four is that even if progress is made towards goal, adjustments might still need to be made. Back to our sales analogy – five months in, and good progress is made. The sales team has done well, and the organization has made 9% towards the 14% goal. Even though progress is being made, a handful of salesmen are burnt out.

Often, these assignments are not controlled by researchers, but are pre-existing groups that have received different treatments. While true experiments rely on random assignment to the treatment or control groups, quasi-experimental design uses some criterion other than randomization to assign people. In a scientific study, a control group is used to establish causality by isolating the effect of an independent variable.

Definition of Control:

On the right side of the range might also include those who are making decisions with serious consequences such as profitability. For example, a company sending in a bid on a major project worth millions of dollars might have extra oversight to make sure the bid is done properly. The more serious the consequences, the more to the right on the control range the manager should consider. Finally, the right side of the control range should also be used when the task is brand new to the organization. Think about the response to 9/11, corona virus, or a mass shooting.

Experiments that use control groups are called controlled experiments. Change of control occurs when a company is taken over by another. what is the difference between rent receivable and rent payable When a takeover, whether friendly or hostile, is completed, the board or majority of the board is elected by the new owner.

In every organisation or every department of public administration, it has been found that certain recalcitrant elements oppose the order or policy of authority. If the authority takes no precautionary measure that may inflict injury on the body of management. To stop this undesirable outcome there is an arrangement to check this outcome and this is called control.

  • It’s important to use the same procedures across all groups in an experiment.
  • A system generating feedback inconsistent with current need will tend to fluctuate and will not adjust in the desired manner.
  • For example, people often recover from illnesses or injuries over time regardless of whether they’ve received effective treatment or not.
  • The current output of a feedback system, also known as a closed-loop control system, is examined and adjusted to the desired condition.
  • Read this article to learn about the definition, purposes, methods and means of control in public administration.

In contrast, the standards outlined by a formal law can be changed from one day to the next through revision, discontinuation, or replacement by another. Information about deviant behavior becomes the basis for controlling social activity. Output information is compared with the standard or norm and significant deviations are noted. If you don’t control relevant extraneous variables, they may influence the outcomes of your study, and you may not be able to demonstrate that your results are really an effect of your independent variable. Aside from the independent and dependent variables, all variables that can impact the results should be controlled.

In 2006, Hamas won parliamentary elections, and in 2007 the group violently seized control of the Gaza Strip from the Palestinian Authority, which was controlled by the rival Fatah movement that governs the West Bank. If you are in a negative state, one in which you are filled with discouragement and fear, you are not going to be able to lead others effectively. To know what is happening or what has actually happened in the organisation.

Advantages of Controlling

On the left side would also include monitoring the performance of individuals who have proven themselves through previous performance. Monitoring their behavior or guiding their work would give them the feeling of micromanagement. Step three simply means comparing the actual performance to standard. In our sales analogy, let’s say that the yearly goal is a 14% improvement. By the fifth month, the sales manager checks the progress and sees that progress is slow, and they are only at 4%.

Control variables in experiments

This means researchers can correctly measure the entire effect of the treatment without interference from confounding variables. The electronic and printing media keep a constant vigilance over the activities of the governmental departments and agencies. The government organisation or public administration is controlled in a variety of ways and some of them are stated below. Within the organisation there exists a self-regulatory mechanism which may be called checks and balances. Even within an organisation there are several departments which are organised in such a way that very often one department is set against another and as such no department can act independently. This may be called checks and balances and is a characteristic feature of the American constitutional system.

Phrases Containing control

Even the non-governmental organistions are not free from judicial control. In parliamentary democracy the ministry is accountable to the legislature and the legislature, in turn, is responsible to the electorate. This chain of accountability ensures that neither the executive (bureaucracy is a part of it) nor the legislature can go against the public interests. Still the other way of control and it is called Target-base Budgeting or TBB. It means that many organisations are asked to fix their targets or objectives or the authority fixes the target and, after this, resources are allocated for the fulfilment of targets. The TBB method of control is popular in many departments of American adminis­trative system.


This requires more thought in the systems design but allows more flexibility of operations and makes it possible to operate a system using unpredictable components and undetermined input. Still, the design and effective operation of control are not without problems. After the reasons for deviations have been determined, managers can then develop solutions for issues with meeting the standards and make changes to processes or behaviors. Researchers often model control variable data along with independent and dependent variable data in regression analyses and ANCOVAs. That way, you can isolate the control variable’s effects from the relationship between the variables of interest. “Controlling for a variable” means modelling control variable data along with independent and dependent variable data in regression analyses and ANCOVAs.

How do you control a variable?

Hence control is a technique to ensure the timely implementation of the objection of the organisation and to thwart the progress of information that may stand on the way of the implementation of policy. Negative control groups are particularly common in science fair experiments, to teach students how to identify the independent variable. A simple example of a control group can be seen in an experiment in which the researcher tests whether or not a new fertilizer has an effect on plant growth. The negative control group would be the set of plants grown without the fertilizer, but under the exact same conditions as the experimental group. The only difference between the experimental group would be whether or not the fertilizer was used. According to modern concepts, control is a foreseeing action; earlier concepts of control were only used when errors were detected.

Some deviation from the plan is usual and expected, but when variations are beyond those considered acceptable, corrective action is required. It involves a sort of preventative action that indicates that good control is being achieved. In a multiple linear regression analysis, you add all control variables along with the independent variable as predictors. The results tell you how much happiness can be predicted by income, while holding age, marital status, and health fixed. To control variables, you can hold them constant at a fixed level using a protocol that you design and use for all participant sessions. For example, the instructions and time spent on an experimental task should be the same for all participants in a laboratory setting.